Cyclophosphan - General Information:

Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the liver to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of lymphoma and leukemia. Its side effect, alopecia, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphan may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer. [PubChem]

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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide) is an alkylating agent used to treat certain cancers. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Pharmacology:

Cyclophosphan is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. They stop tumor growth by cross-linking guanine bases in DNA double-helix strands - directly attacking DNA. This makes the strands unable to uncoil and separate. As this is necessary in DNA replication, the cells can no longer divide. In addition, these drugs add methyl or other alkyl groups onto molecules where they do not belong which in turn inhibits their correct utilization by base pairing and causes a miscoding of DNA. Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific. Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the same end result - disruption of DNA function and cell death.

Cyclophosphan for patients

This medicine is a type of chemotherapy for treating cancers of the blood
and certain other cancers. This medicine interferes with the way cancer
cells grow. Take your doses on a regular scheduled time and DO NOT take
this medicine more often than directed by your health care provider.
Finish the full course prescribed by your health care provider. DO NOT
stop taking this medicine unless diredted to do so by your health care
provider. While taking this medicine, you make get infection more easily.
Call your doctor if you get a fever, chills, or sore throat. Drink plenty
of water with this medicine.

Cyclophosphan Interactions

The rate of metabolism and the leukopenic activity of cyclophosphamide reportedly are increased by chronic administration of high doses of phenobarbital.

The physician should be alert for possible combined drug actions, desirable or undesirable, involving cyclophosphamide even though cyclophosphamide has been used successfully concurrently with other drugs, including other cytotoxic drugs.

Cyclophosphamide treatment, which causes a marked and persistent inhibition of cholinesterase activity, potentiates the effect of succinylcholine chloride.

If a patient has been treated with cyclophosphamide within 10 days of general anesthesia, the anesthesiologist should be alerted.

Cyclophosphan Contraindications

Continued use of cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients with severely depressed bone marrow function. Cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated a previous hypersensitivity to it.

Additional information about Cyclophosphan

Cyclophosphan Indication: For management of malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma,leukemias, mycosis fungoides (advanced disease), neuroblastoma (disseminated disease), adenocarcinoma of the ovary, retinoblastoma and carcinoma of the breast
Mechanism Of Action: Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms: 1) attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA, 2) DNA damage via the formation of cross-links (bonds between atoms in the DNA) which prevents DNA from being separated for synthesis or transcription, and 3) the induction of mispairing of the nucleotides leading to mutations.
Drug Interactions: Anisindione Increases the anticoagulant effect
Dicumarol Increases the anticoagulant effect
Acenocoumarol Increases the anticoagulant effect
Warfarin Increases the anticoagulant effect
Digoxin The antineoplasic agent decreases the effect of digoxin
Fluconazole Fluconazole reduces metabolism and clearance of cyclophosphamide
Pentostatin Increased toxicity of cyclophosphamide
Succinylcholine The agent increases the effect of succinylcholine
Food Interactions: Take with food to reduce irritation.
Drink liberally- 2 to 3 liters/day.
Generic Name: Cyclophosphamide
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Antineoplastic Agents; Antirheumatic Agents; Immunosuppressive Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Cyclophosphamide: ASTA; Asta B 518; CP; CPA; CTX; CY; Clafen; Claphene; Cyclophosphamid; Cyclophosphamide Monohydrate; Cyclophosphamide Sterile; Cyclophosphamidum; Cyclophosphan; Cyclophosphane; Cyclophosphoramide; Cyclostin; Cyklofosfamid; Cytophosphan; Cytoxan; Cytoxan Lyoph; Endoxan; Endoxan R; Endoxan-Asta; Endoxana; Endoxanal; Endoxane; Enduxan; Genoxal; Hexadrin; Lyophilized Cytoxan; Mitoxan; Neosar; Procytox; Rcra Waste Number U058; Semdoxan; Sendoxan; Senduxan; Zyklophosphamid;
Absorption: 90-100%
Toxicity (Overdose): infection, myelosuppression, and cardiac toxicity
Protein Binding: >60%
Biotransformation: hepatic
Half Life: 3-12 hours
Dosage Forms of Cyclophosphan: Solution Intravenous
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Tablet Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-oxo-1-oxa-3-aza-2$l^{5}-phosphacyclohexan-2-amine
Chemical Formula: C7H15Cl2N2O2P
Cyclophosphamide on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclophosphamide
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals

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