Dilaudid - General Information:An opioid analgesic made from morphine and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine. [PubChem]
Pharmacology:Dilaudid is a hydrogenated ketone derivative of morphine that acts as a narcotic analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine. Dilaudid is approximately 8 times more potent on a milligram basis than morphine. In addition, hydromorphone is better absorbed orally than is morphine. In clinical settings, Dilaudid exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Dilaudid appears to increase the patient's tolerance for pain and to decrease discomfort, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Opioids also produce respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers.
Dilaudid for patients
Patients receiving other narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, sedative-hypnotics, tricyclic antidepressants or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) concomitantly with DILAUDID may exhibit an additive CNS depression. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.
DILAUDID is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to hydromorphone; in the presence of an intracranial lesion associated with increased intracranial pressure; and whenever ventilatory function is depressed (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cor pulmonale, emphysema, kyphoscoliosis, status asthmaticus).
Additional information about DilaudidDilaudid Indication: For the relief of moderate to severe pain such as that due to surgery, cancer, trauma/injury, burns, myocardial infarction and colic.
Mechanism Of Action: Dilaudid is a narcotic analgesic; its principal therapeutic effect is relief of pain. Dilaudid interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptors. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. In clinical settings, Dilaudid exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Dilaudid also binds with kappa-receptors which are thought to mediate spinal analgesia, miosis and sedation.
Drug Interactions: Cimetidine Cimetidine increases the effect of the narcotic
Naltrexone Naltrexone may precipitate a withdrawal syndrome in opioid-dependent individual
Food Interactions: Take without regard to meals. Avoid alcohol.
Generic Name: Hydromorphone
Synonyms: Dihydromorfinon [Czech]; Dihydromorphinone; Hidromorfona [INN-Spanish]; Hydromorfona [Spanish]; Hydromorphon; Hydromorphone HCL; Hydromorphonum [INN-Latin]
Drug Category: Analgesics, Opioid; Narcotics
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Illicit; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Hydromorphone: DiMo; Dilaudid; Dilaudid Oros; Dilaudid-hp; Dimorphone; Hymorphan; Idromorfone; Laudacon; Laudicon; Novolaudon; Palladone; Paramorphan;
Absorption: Better absorbed orally than morphine
Toxicity (Overdose): Hydromorphone is a schedule II narcotic which can lead to physical dependence or addiction. High doses lead to respiratory depression, nausea, and vomiting. Overdoses lead to extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdosage, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
Protein Binding: 20%
Biotransformation: Primarily hepatic. After absorption hydromorphone is metabolized by the liver to the glucuronide conjugate which is then excreted in the urine. Hydromorphone is metabolized to the major metabolites hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, hydromorphone-3-glucoside and dihydroisomorphine-6-glucuronide.
Half Life: 2.6 hours (oral); 18.6 hours for sustained release Palladone
Dosage Forms of Dilaudid: Solution Intravenous
Capsule, extended release Oral
Powder, for solution Intravenous
Chemical IUPAC Name: 4,5 alpha-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methyl morphinan-6-one
Chemical Formula: C17H19NO3
Hydromorphone on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydromorphone
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals
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