Epipen - General Information:
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics. [PubChem]
Epipen is indicated for intravenous injection in treatment of acute hypersensitivity, treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm, and treatment and prophylaxis of cardiac arrest and attacks of transitory atrioventricular heart block with syncopal seizures (Stokes-Adams Syndrome). The actions of epinephrine resemble the effects of stimulation of adrenergic nerves. To a variable degree it acts on both alpha and beta receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells. Its most prominent actions are on the beta receptors of the heart, vascular and other smooth muscle. When given by rapid intravenous injection, it produces a rapid rise in blood pressure, mainly systolic, by (1) direct stimulation of cardiac muscle which increases the strength of ventricular contraction, (2) increasing the heart rate and (3) constriction of the arterioles in the skin, mucosa and splanchnic areas of the circulation. When given by slow intravenous injection, epinephrine usually produces only a moderate rise in systolic and a fall in diastolic pressure. Although some increase in pulse pressure occurs, there is usually no great elevation in mean blood pressure. Accordingly, the compensatory reflex mechanisms that come into play with a pronounced increase in blood pressure do not antagonize the direct cardiac actions of epinephrine as much as with catecholamines that have a predominant action on alpha receptors.
Epipen for patients
Epinephrine should be used cautiously in patients with hyperthyroidism, hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. All vasopressors should be used cautiously in patients taking monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.
Epinephrine should not be administered concomitantly with other sympathomimetic drugs (such as isoproterenol) because of possible additive effects and increased toxicity.
Combined effects may induce serious cardiac arrhythmias. They may be administered alternately when the preceding effect of other such drug has subsided.
Administration of epinephrine to patients receiving cyclopropane or halogenated hydrocarbon general anesthetics such as halothane which sensitize the myocardium, may induce cardiac arrhythmia.. When encountered, such arrhythmias may respond to administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug. Epinephrine also should be used cautiously with other drugs (e.g., digitalis, glycosides) that sensitize the myocardium to the actions of sympathomimetic drugs.
Diuretic agents may decrease vascular response to pressor drugs such as epinephrine.
Epinephrine may antagonize the neuron blockade produced by guanethidine resulting in decreased antihypertensive effect and requiring increased dosage of the latter.
Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, in patients with angle closure glaucoma, and patients in shock (nonanaphylactic). It should not be used in patients anesthetized with agents such as cyclopropane or halothane as these may sensitize the heart to arrhythmic action of sympathomimetic drugs.
Epinephrine should not ordinarily be used in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated, e.g., in thyrotoxicosis, diabetes, in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure is in excess of 130/80 and in hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.
Other Brand Names containing Epinephrine:
ADROP; Adnephrine; Adrenal; Adrenalin-Medihaler; Adrenamine; Adrenan; Adrenapax; Adrenasol; Adrenatrate; Adrenine; Adrenodis; Adrenohorma; Adrenor; Adrenosan; Adrenutol; Adrin; Adrine; Aktamin; Ana-Guard; Antiasthmatique; Asmatane Mist; Asthma Meter Mist; Asthma-Nefrin; Asthmahaler Mist; Asthmanefrin; Astmahalin; Astminhal; Balmadren; Bernarenin; Biorenine; Bosmin; Brevirenin; Bronkaid; Bronkaid Mist; Bronkaid Suspension Mist; Chelafrin; Citanest Forte; Corisol; Drenamist; Duranest; Dylephrin; Epi EZ Pen Jr; Epifrin; Epiglaufrin; Epipen; Epipen Auto-Injector; Epipen EZ Pen; Epipen Jr.; Epipen Jr. Auto-Injector; Epirenamine; Epirenan; Epirenin; Epitrate; Eppy; Esphygmogenina; Exadrin; Glaucon; Glaucosan; Glauposine; Glycirenan; Haemostasin; Haemostatin; Hektalin; Hemisine; Hemostasin; Hemostatin; Hypernephrin; Hyporenin; IOP; Intranefrin; Iontocaine; Isoptoepinal; Kidoline; Levonor; Levorenen; Levorenin; Levorenine; Lidocaton; Lyophrin; Medihaler-Epi; Metanephrin; Micronefrin; Mucidrina; Myosthenine; Mytrate; Nephridine; Nephron; Nieraline; Nor-Epirenan; Norartrinal; Paranephrin; Primatene Mist; Renagladin; Renaglandin; Renaglandulin; Renaleptine; Renalina; Renoform; Renostypricin; Renostypticin; Renostyptin; Scurenaline; Septocaine; Simplene; Sindrenina; Soladren; Sphygmogenin; Stryptirenal; Styptirenal; Supracapsulin; Supradin; Supranefran; Supranephrane; Supranephrine; Supranol; Suprarenaline; Suprarenin; Suprel; Surenine; Surrenine; Sus-Phrine; Susphrine; Sympathin E; Sympathin I; Takamina; Takamine; Tokamina; Tolansin; Tolax; Tolcil; Tolhart; Tonogen; Twinject; Vaponefrin; Vasoconstrictine; Vasodrine; Vasoton; Vasotonin;
Indication, Mechanism Of Action, Drug Interactions, Food Interactions, etc..