Metabarbital - General Information:

Metabarbital was patented in 1905 by Emil Fischer working for Merck. It was marketed as Gemonil by Abbott Laboratories. It is a barbiturate anticonvulsant, used in the treatment of epilepsy. It has similar properties to phenobarbital.

Pharmacology:

Metabarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the treatment of short term insomnia. It belongs to a group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants that induce drowsiness and relieve tension or nervousness. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation.

Metabarbital for patients

Metabarbital Interactions

Interactions may occur with the following: adrenocorticoids (cortisone-like medicine), anticoagulants (blood thinners), carbamazepine, corticotropin (barbiturates may decrease the effects of these medicines), central nervous system (CNS) depressants (using these medicines with barbiturates may result in increased CNS depressant effects), divalproex sodium, valproic acid (using these medicines with barbiturates may change the amount of either medicine that you need to take), and oral contraceptives (birth control pills) containing estrogens (barbiturates may decrease the effectiveness of these oral contraceptives, and you may need to change to a different type of birth control).

Metabarbital Contraindications

The following conditions may affect the use of barbiturates: alcohol abuse (or history of), history of/current drug abuse or dependence (dependence on barbiturates may develop), anemia (severe), asthma (history of), emphysema, or other chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), hyperactivity (in children), mental depression, overactive thyroid, porphyria (barbiturates may make the condition worse), kidney disease, liver disease (higher blood levels of barbiturates may result, increasing the chance of side effects), pain (barbiturates may cause unexpected excitement or mask important symptoms of more serious problems), underactive adrenal gland (barbiturates may interfere with the effects of other medicines needed for this condition).

Additional information about Metabarbital

Metabarbital Indication: For the treatment of epilepsy
Mechanism Of Action: Metabarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged. All of these effects are associated with marked decreases in GABA-sensitive neuronal calcium conductance (gCa). The net result of barbiturate action is acute potentiation of inhibitory GABAergic tone. Barbiturates also act through potent (if less well characterized) and direct inhibition of excitatory AMPA-type glutamate receptors, resulting in a profound suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Not Available
Generic Name: Metharbital
Synonyms: Not Available
Drug Category: Anticonvulsants
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Metharbital: Endiemal; Endiemalum; Gemonal; Gemonil; Gemonit; Metabarbital; Metarbital [Inn-Spanish]; Metarbitale [Dcit]; Methabarbital; Methabarbitone; Metharbital [Inn:Jan]; Metharbitalum [Inn-Latin]; Metharbitone; Metharbutal; Methylbarbital; N-Methylbarbital;
Absorption: Not Available
Toxicity (Overdose): Signs of overdose include confusion (severe), decrease in or loss of reflexes, drowsiness (severe), fever, irritability (continuing), low body temperature, poor judgment, shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing, slow heartbeat, slurred speech, staggering, trouble in sleeping, unusual movements of the eyes, weakness (severe).
Protein Binding: Not Available
Biotransformation: Not Available
Half Life: Not Available
Dosage Forms of Metabarbital: Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name: 5,5-diethyl-1-methyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
Chemical Formula: C9H14N2O3
Metharbital on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metharbital
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals

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