Oxyurea - General Information:An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. [PubChem]
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Hydrea (Hydroxyurea) is an antineoplastic used to treat certain types of cancer. It may also be used to treat sickle cell anemia and other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Pharmacology:Oxyurea has dose-dependent synergistic activity with cisplatin in vitro. In vivo Oxyurea showed activity in combination with cisplatin against the LX-1 and CALU-6 human lung xenografts, but minimal activity was seen with the NCI-H460 or NCI-H520 xenografts. Oxyurea was synergistic with cisplatin in the Lewis lung murine xenograft. Sequential exposure to Oxyurea 4 hours before cisplatin produced the greatest interaction.
Oxyurea for patients
HYDREA is a medication that must be handled with care. People who are not taking HYDREA should not be exposed to it. If the powder from the capsule is spilled, it should be wiped up immediately with a damp disposable towel and discarded in a closed container, such as a plastic bag. The medication should be kept away from children and pets.
Prospective studies on the potential for hydroxyurea to interact with other drugs have not been performed.
Concurrent use of hydroxyurea and other myelosuppressive agents or radiation therapy may increase the likelihood of bone marrow depression or other adverse events.
Since hydroxyurea may raise the serum uric acid level, dosage adjustment of uricosuric medication may be necessary.
Hydroxyurea is contraindicated in patients with marked bone marrow depression, i.e., leukopenia (<2500 WBC) or thrombocytopenia (<100,000), or severe anemia.
HYDREA is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated a previous hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea or any other component of its formulation.
Additional information about OxyureaOxyurea Indication: For management of melanoma, resistant chronic myelocytic leukemia, and recurrent, metastatic, or inoperable carcinoma of the ovary and Sickle-cell anemia.
Mechanism Of Action: Oxyurea is converted to a free radical nitroxide (NO) in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replicase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Oxyurea also increases the level of fetal hemoglobin, leading to a reduction in the incidence of vasoocclusive crises in sickle cell anemia. Levels of fetal hemoglobin increase in response to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by hydroxyurea-derived NO.
Drug Interactions: Not Available
Food Interactions: Take without regard to meals. Drink liberally.
Generic Name: Hydroxyurea
Synonyms: Carbamohydroxamic Acid; Carbamohydroximic Acid; Carbamohydroxyamic Acid; Carbamoyl Oxime; Carbamyl Hydroxamate; HU; Hydroxicarbamidum; Hydroxycarbamide; Hydroxycarbamine; Hydroxylurea; Idrossicarbamide [Dcit]; N-Carbamoylhydroxylamine; N-Hydroxyurea; Sterile Urea
Drug Category: Antisickling Agents; Antineoplastic Agents
Drug Type: Small Molecule; Approved
Other Brand Names containing Hydroxyurea: Biosupressin; Droxia; Hidrix; Hydrea; Hydreia; Hydura; Hydurea; Litaler; Litalir; Onco-Carbide; Oxyurea; Ureaphil;
Absorption: Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Toxicity (Overdose): Oral, mouse: LD50 = 7330 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 5760 mg/kg
Teratogenicity: Teratogenic effects have occurred in experimental animals.Hydroxyurea use during a small number of human pregnancies has been reported. Adverse effects have not been observed in any of the exposed newborns.
Reproductive Effects: Adverse reproductive effects have occurred in experimental animals.
Mutagenicity: Mutagenic effects have occurred in experimental animals.Mutagenic effects have occurred in humans.
Protein Binding: Not Available
Half Life: 3-4 hours
Dosage Forms of Oxyurea: Capsule Oral
Chemical IUPAC Name: hydroxyurea
Chemical Formula: CH4N2O2
Hydroxyurea on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxyurea
Organisms Affected: Humans and other mammals
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